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650 BIOCIDES

650 Biocide Product Line

Our high performance 650 biocide products are based on the microbiocidal molecule Bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, or BNPD) and are registered pesticide products with the United States EPA.  The 650 product line offers several distinct advantages not available in other common biocides:

  • Non-ionic and non-oxidizing
  • Increased biofilm penetration
  • Effective in freshwater and brine
  • Highly compatible with various chemistries
  • Highly synergistic with other biocides
  • No known bacterial resistance
  • Broad-spectrum kill
  • Effective as low as 7 ppm
  • Effective in a wide pH range
  • Preservation efficacy coupled with quick kill

The 650 biocide product line is offered in solid form only.  It is registered as 650 P (650 water soluble packs, >98% active, 1.0 lb/pack) and 650 S (650 stick form, 85% active, ¼ lb each).  Bronopol is an extremely versatile and effective biocide with no known resistance in over 30 years of use, and is a perfect choice for any application or where other products are incompatible or have failed (e.g. oxidizers, quaternary compounds, and aldehydes).

Bio-fouling in industrial water treatment systems and the microbial contamination and degeneration of oilfield additives is largely due to the presence of Gram negative bacteria, which are highly resistant to other common biocides.  Anaerobic bacteria can cause conditions suitable to biofilm, corrosion and souring problems particularly in oilfield pipework, tank and terminal storage, and closed-loop water systems.  The 650 product line is ideally suited to treating the aforementioned adverse effects of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as well as aerobic and anaerobic microbial contamination including biofilms.

The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C.) of Bronopol is typically 12.5 – 50 ppm for a wide range of aerobic, water-borne bacteria, including: Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to have formed resistance against the common biocide isothiazolin-3-one (i.e. isothiazolone) and its derivatives.  Bronopol has been shown to control this microorganism with a M.I.C. of 12.5 ppm.  In cooling water systems, the presence of pathogenic organisms like Legionella pneumophila are of major concern.  Legionella species are particularly dangerous because they may circumvent detection (using methods other than 2nd Generation ATP testing) due to being dormant below 68°F/20°C.  It is also worth noting that being a Gram negative bacterium, Legionella spp. is highly resistant to other common biocide technologies including chlorination, is planktonic in nature, and thrives in high iron environments.  Bronopol has been shown to control this microorganism with a M.I.C. of 50 ppm.

The 650 product line is used in a multitude of industries. For oil and gas it is used throughout up, mid, and downstream/storage operations, both on and offshore, with typical dosage rates ranging from 25 – 200 ppm. In industrial water treatment systems and oilfield recycle/reuse programs where oxidizers are the primary biocide, the 650 line incorporated at the low dose end for its excellent preservation effects.
Dynamic, recirculating systems can be shock treated or maintained by 650 – the required activity will be delivered but then decay sufficiently to pose no threat to potential subsequent biological treatment in the waste streams.
Pulp and paper operations can use 650 as a preservative or slurry additive, typically in the range of 50 – 500 ppm. An added benefit of 650 is that the compound shows a high affinity for polar organic solvents (e.g. ethylene glycol) which allows for use in various fluid systems including emulsion systems which may contain glycols, alcohols or other polar organic solvents as an emulsifier and/or surfactant.

The 650 biocide line exhibits excellent biocidal activity in a wide pH range, but shows optimum stability at a slightly acidic pH (i.e. pH ~6).  This allows for greater flexibility and use in a wide range of applications regardless of pH, thereby decreasing the need for buffers and/or pH adjustment.

48 hr EC50 (ppm) Daphnia magna

Polyquat .37
ADBAC .0058
DDAC .94
TTPC .25
Isothiazolone .15
Glut 5.75
DBNPA 1.24
Bronopol

96 hr LC50 (ppm) Bluegill Sunfish

Polyquat .34
ADBAC 1.88
DDAC .32
TTPC .10
Isothiazolone .54
Glut 11.2
DBNPA 1.3
Bronopol 35.7

96 hr LC50 (ppm) Rainbow Trout

Polyquat .47
ADBAC 6.24
DDAC n/a
TTPC n/a
Isothiazolone .14
Glut 11.9
DBNPA 1.0
Bronopol 20.0

Oxidizer Synergy of 650

The use of oxidizers is a common practice throughout multiple industries.  Oxidizers have several benefits: effective, inexpensive, readily available, ease of application, short-lived, and no foam.  However, oxidizers may not be the cure all as once thought.  As monitoring technologies have advanced and evolved, so have the results, and they are startling.  These advanced monitoring technologies have pointed out that oxidizers do not always perform as once believed. So this begs the question…are oxidizers the best choice for your application?

It was once thought oxidizers had a 100% kill rate in water, thereby resulting in water that is, by definition, sterile.  Unfortunately, this does not, and will not occur as several studies using several different testing methods have shown.  For example, recent analyses using 2nd Generation ATP monitoring on pond water treated with ClO2 have shown that there are, on average, 0.4 pg/mL ATP, 4 hours post-treatment, in these waters even with a FAC residual of up to 8 ppm.  This ATP amount is equivalent to 400 fg/mL of ATP (1 pg, or picogram, is equivalent to 1,000 fg, or femtograms).  It is known that 1.0 fg of ATP is equivalent to one E. coli sized bacteria. Therefore, there is the potential for 400 bacteria per milliliter of water.  To put this in industrial terms, every 21,000 gallons (500 bbl) of pond water may contain 3.2 X 1010 E. coli bacterial cells.  Within 12 hours post-treatment, the same pond water was checked again and the results were 4.1 pg/mL ATP.  These results showed a 10X increase within an 8-hour time period.  If we extend this growth out over 48 hours, the regrowth is astronomical.  Oxidizers just do not hold up for long.

Oxidizers, possessing quick kill capabilities, also possess a very short half-life. Ozone, the strongest oxidizer measured by ORP, common due to its safe degradation into oxygen (O2), has a very short half-life of 15 minutes in waters at 77°F/25°C.  Above 104°F/40°C, ozone will not dissolve in water and immediately breaks down.  Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is quickly becoming a popular oxidizer in oil and gas applications.  Although it is the weakest oxidizer within the common group of oxidizers due to a low ORP, its oxidation capacity is 2.5 times greater making it one of the most effective oxidizers available.

However, the half-life of aqueous chlorine dioxide solutions decreases substantially with increasing concentration, temperature, and with increasing pH.  Chlorine dioxide is also very laborious to make as it is not readily available in liquid form.  It is required to be made on-site via the reaction of sodium chlorite and hydrochloric acid, yielding anywhere from 50% to 75% ClO2, and possesses a half-life of less than one hour. With such short half-lives, the ability to preserve the efficacy of the oxidizers is nearly impossible.

The penetration of biofilms is a difficult task for oxidizers because of their mode of action.  According to the NIH and CDC, over 90% of all bacteria live in biofilms, and over 99% of pathogens in our environment reside in these biofilms.  Studies have shown that common biocides such as chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone, and other oxidizers are ineffective against bacteria that live in biofilm since they have a very difficult time penetrating the biofilm.  Although planktonic species may not demonstrate an increased resistance to oxidizers, recent studies have shown that biofilms could accumulate in the presence of 0.8 ppm FAC.  These same studies have shown that there has yet to be a level of continuous halogenation determined to control biofilm without system corrosion, as it can take over 1,000 times the routine dose of oxidizing biocides to kill microorganisms in biofilms compared to free-swimming (planktonic) microorganisms.

Oxidizers require the assistance of a synergist to ensure the success of the oxidizer remains post-treatment.  The 650 biocide products are the perfect synergists for all oxidizers to ensure the quick kill performed by the oxidizer remains while preservation prevents regrowth.  Recent studies, using chlorine dioxide as the primary biocide and 650 as the preservative/secondary biocide (650 was administered downstream from oxidizer administration point), showed quick kill coupled with excellent preservation.  Two weeks post-treatment of the chlorine dioxide/650 treatment showed no regrowth in the system.  Omega’s 650 demonstrates excellent synergism with any oxidizer by providing inhibition of regrowth as well as further reduction of remaining microbes.

650 Offers the Following Synergistic Advantages for Oxidizers

  • Extended bacterial control
  • Improved biofilm penetration
  • No known bacterial resistance
  • Decreased need for oxidizer residual
  • Improved temperature stability
  • Complementary mode of action
  • Decreased need for corrosion inhibitors
  • Reduced HS&E hazards
  • Decreased need for shock treatments
  • Improved proppant and formation compatibility
Application Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations
Bronopol M.I.C.
Application* ppm grams/1000L lbx/1000 US Gallons lbs/bbl
Cooling Water, Humidifiers 15 – 100 15 – 100 0.125 – 0.84 0.005 – 0.04
Drilling Muds, Frac Fluids, Workover/Completion Fluids 50 – 100 50 – 100 0.43 – 0.86 0.018 – 0.036
Well Squeeze Fluids 25 – 200 25 – 200 0.22 – 1.72 0.009 – 0.072
Floor, Injection or Produced Water 25 – 100 25 – 100 0.21 – 0.84 0.01 – 0.04
Pipeline and Tank Maintenance 25 – 200 25 – 200 0.21 – 1.68 0.01 – 0.09
Bulk Paper Preservation 50 – 250 50 – 250 0.43 – 2.15 0.018 – 0.09
Paper Mill Additive in Slurries, etc. 100 – 500 100 – 500 0.84 – 4.30 0.036 – 0.18
Fuel Storage and Blends 25 – 100 25 – 100 0.21 – 0.84 0.01 – 0.04
*Always follow directions as stated on the label.  For 650 S use, 1 stick per 264 gallons (1 stick/1000L) is equivalent to 100 ppm.

Biocide Comparison

Bronopol vs. Various Common Biocides
Table 1. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (M.I.C.)
  M.I.C. (ppm)
Test Organism Bronopol∆ Glutaraldehyde Dazomet DBNPA THPS Quat^
Staphylococcus spp. 25 50 500 250 50 250
Bacillus spp. 50 325 117 100 400 n/a
Desulphovibrio spp. 12.5 30 150 10 500 105
Pseudomonas spp.* 12.5 100 117 100 >800 450
Legionella spp. 50 625 n/a 50 n/a 600
Candida spp. 400 625 500 100 >800 600
*Pseudomonas aeruginosa has formed resistance to many common biocides (e.g. isothiazolones) except Bronopol.
∆ Bronopol can also be effective in controlling algal growth.  Mixed populations can be inhibited by 50 ppm active and single strains require levels as low as 6.25ppm.
^MIC numbers provided are for DDAC and/or ADBAC in water with 0.0 ppm CaCO3 hardness.   Several studies have concluded that when 500 ppm CaCO3
hardness is encountered, required dosage rate will increase by as much as 110% and may cause foaming in the system.

Table 2. Dose Rates of Specified Biocide in ppm^

Application Bronopol Glutaraldehyde Dazomet THPS* TTPC* Quat
Recirculating Cooling Water, Air Conditioners, Humidifiers 15-100 20.3 n/a 25-125 20-100 20-100
Drilling Muds & Fracturing Fluids 50-100 50-500 200-1000 125-5250 50-500 1500-3000
Workover and Completion Fluids 50-100 125-1500 200-1000 125-5250 50-500 65-1000
Well Squeeze Fluids 25-200 50-250 200-1000 n/a 50-500 65-1000
Flood, Injection, and Produced Waters 25-100 10-250 200-1000 70-260 50-500 75-500
Pipeline and Tank Maintenance (Terminals) 25-200 25-2500 200-500 25-500 50-500 75-500
Gas Injection Wells 25-100 100-2500 n/a 25-100 50-500 65-1000
Hydrostatic Systems 5-100 50-2000 n/a 50-500 20-100 65-1000
Bulk Paper Preservation 50-250 100-500 100-500 n/a 100-500 n/a
Paper Mill Additives and Slurries 100-500 100-500 100-500 n/a 250-750 n/a
^BASF Corporation. Specialty Chemicals by BASF: Water and oilfield biocides. Aug 1999.  BASF: Paper Industry Biocides July 2000.
*THPS (Tetrakis-Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate) and TTPC (Tributyl Tetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride) are cationic phosphonium quats.  MIC’s THPS (Tetrakis-Hydroxymethyl Phosphonium Sulfate) and TTPC (Tributyl Tetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride) are cationic phosphonium quats.  MIC’s

The information contained in these tables is believed to be accurate but is given without warranty.

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